Projects benefit by leveraging existing organizational knowledge and creating new knowledge in projects to improve project outcomes and future phases of projects. Knowledge is of two types:
Explicit knowledge – this can be documented (codified) easily in words, pictures, etc. But this cannot cover the knowledge for all contexts, for example – all scenarios of one process. For this, we require tacit knowledge.
Tacit knowledge – this is in the minds of experts who understand how to use knowledge for various contexts or situations. But this is difficult to codify as it depends on experience and beliefs, etc.
Knowledge sharing and integration from various areas are required when reusing existing knowledge or creating new knowledge. An environment of trust and safety is essential for knowledge sharing. Knowledge management is best-done face to face, for example by networking, discussion forums, workshops, work shadowing, knowledge cafes, interactive training, interest group or communities. Whereas information management requires the use of library services or lessons learned register, web searching and reading articles. Finally, knowledge must be kept up-to-date and should be used. Due to this, project managers have to demonstrate leadership.
Before I tell you about each of these Knowledge Areas in detail, let me first introduce you to the 5 process groups.
Initiation Phase – Start of the process with developing the initial report and identifying the stakeholders
Planning Phase – Planning of the project by preparation of the management plan, scope, etc.
Execution Phase – Execution of the project as per planned management data across all the knowledge areas.
Monitoring and Controlling Phase – Monitoring & Controlling of the project as per the planned progress.
Closing Phase – Handover of the project to the customer after the final sign off!
1.Integration Management - project selection methods and methodologies, stakeholder analyses, charters, project management plans, project management software, change requests, change control boards, review meetings, and lessons-learned reports.
2. Scope Management - scope statements, work breakdown structures, mind maps, statements of work, requirements analyses, scope management plans, scope verification techniques, and scope change controls.
3. Time Management - Gantt charts, project network diagrams, critical-path analyses, crashing, fast tracking, schedule performance measurements.
4. Cost Management - Net present value, return on investment, payback analyses, earned value management, project portfolio management, cost estimates, managing cost plans, and cost baselines.
5. Quality Management - Quality metrics, checklists, quality control charts, Pareto diagrams, fishbone diagrams, maturity models, and statistical models.
6. Human Resource Management - Motivation techniques, empathic listening, responsibility assignment matrices, project organizational charts, resource histograms, and team building exercises.
7. Communications Management - Communications plans, kickoff meetings, conflict resolution, communications media selection, status and progress reports, virtual communications, templates, and project web sites.
8. Risk Management - Risk management plans, risk registers, probability/impact matrices, and risk rankings.
9. Procurement Management - Make-or-buy analyses, contracts, request for proposals or quotes, source selections, supplier evaluation matrices.